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Integrated Reasoning

GMAT integrated reasoning
Integrated Reasoning (IR) questions measure your ability to analyze information and data presented in graphical, tabular, and written formats. Each question is accompanied by one, two, or three sub-questions to answer. You must correctly answer each sub-question for the question to be correct; there is no partial credit. You can use an on-screen calculator during the Data Insights section only, because IR question calculations are often not as straightforward as those in Quant questions.

GMAT Integrated Reasoning Question Types

The IR section contains four question types. The links below open up sample questions provided by the GMAC for each of these question types; answers are given but no explanations are provided.

  • Two-Part Analysis (TPA) questions provide a stimulus with a two-part question. Both parts of the question will often be related and may even be dependent on each other. You are given five or six possible answers in a column format. Choose one answer for each part by selecting one answer in each column. Although uncommon, it is possible for both question parts to have the same answer. Expect 4 to 6 TPA questions on a Data Insights section.
  • Graphics Interpretation (GI) questions require you to interpret some sort of graph, which often (but not always) contains vertical and horizontal axes. Each question will have two fill-in-the-blank statements with drop-down boxes. The drop-down boxes allow you to select from three to five possible answers for each statement. Review the available answer options in the drop-down box before proceeding with any calculations. Expect 3 to 5 GI questions on a Data Insights section.
  • Table Analysis (TA) questions present a spreadsheet-like table of information that can be sorted by selecting the column title from a drop-down box. Tables can be as big as 21 rows by 9 columns. Three statements with two opposite answer choices (e.g. yes/no, true/false) are presented. Understand what information the table contains (at a big-picture level) before proceeding to the questions. Expect 2 or 3 TA questions on a Data Insights section.
  • Multi-Source Reasoning (MSR) questions provide two or three sources of information on tabbed pages that you can switch between, but cannot view simultaneously. Each tab typically provides text information, but may include a chart or a table. You will be given either three opposite-answer questions (as with TA) OR one multiple choice question with five answers. Making reasonable inferences is important on MSR. Each MSR stimulus will be accompanied by three separate MSR questions. Expect either 3 MSR questions on one MSR stimulus OR 6 MSR questions across two MSR stimuli.

GMAT Integrated Reasoning Approach

IR questions require a combination of verbal and math skills. IR questions also require careful reading of the stimulus and logical reasoning abilities, similar to what is required on Critical Reasoning. Some IR questions require knowledge and usage of certain math concepts, such as percents, statistics, overlapping groups, and probability.

When tackling IR questions, start with a big picture approach. If you are given a table or graph, quickly review it to understand what information you have at your disposal. Lots of extra information may be presented in the stimulus. You must therefore quickly extract the relevant data to answer a question. Although you can use an on-screen calculator, most questions do not require the calculator when approaching them strategically.

Sample GMAT Integrated Reasoning Problem

Let’s try a sample TPA question. Attempt the problem on your own before viewing the answer and explanation.

Read the information provided, review the options presented in the table, and indicate which option meets the criterion presented in the first column and which option meets the criterion presented in the second column. Make only two selections, one in each column.

The organizers of a major technology conference to be held in 2024 are scheduling keynote speakers for the two-day event. Six speakers are required for each day. To reflect the entrepreneurial spirit of the technology industry, more than 50% of the speakers on one day will be from start-up companies. Consistent with the conference’s theme, at least five speakers on the other day will be from social media companies. Neither day should have more than two speakers from the same company. The conference organizers have already scheduled 10 speakers, five for each day, as listed below in alphabetical order by last name.

Day 1 Day 2
Ben-Zion Benkhin, Wombo, social media, start-up
Satya Nadella, Microsoft, software, big company
Javier Olivan, Meta, social media, big company
Bill Ready, Pinterest, social media, big company
Mark Zuckerberg, Meta, social media, big company
Alex Cho, Hewlett Packard, hardware, big company
Jamie Iannone, eBay, auctions, big company
Neal Jean, Beacons, social media, start-up
Arum Kang, Coffee Meets Bagel, social media, start-up
Henri Malkki, Exolyt, social media, start-up

Select a speaker who could be added to the schedule on either day. Then select a speaker who could be added to the schedule on neither day. Make only two selections, one in each column.

Either Day Neither Day Speaker
Mayank Bidawatka, Koo, social media, start-up
Gleb Budman, Backblaze, file backup, start-up
Julio Carozo, Weddily, wedding planning, start-up
Chris Cox, Meta, social media, big company
Sarah Neill, Mys Tyler, fashion, start-up
Ryan Roslansky, LinkedIn, social media, big company